Urinalysis refers to the gross examination of the urine, chemical evaluation using urine test strips, and microscopic examination. Clinical urine tests, are examinations of the physical and chemical properties of urine and its microscopic appearance to aid in medical diagnosis. Gross examination targets parameters that can be measured with the naked eye (or other senses), including volume, color, transparency, odor, and specific gravity; urine test strips measure chemical properties such as pH, glucose concentration and protein levels. Light microscopy is performed to identify elements such as cells, urinary casts, crystals, and organisms. Other analyses routinely performed on urine samples include urine electrolyte levels, drug testing, pregnancy testing and microbiological culture.
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