Urine test strips or dipsticks are a basic diagnostic tool used to determine pathological changes in a patient's urine in standard urinalysis. A standard urine test strip may comprise up to 10 different chemical pads or reagents which react when immersed in, and then removed from, a urine sample. The test can often be read in as little as 60 to 120 seconds after dipping, although certain tests require longer. Routine testing of the urine with multiparameter strips is the first step in the diagnosis of a wide range of diseases. The analysis includes testing for the presence of proteins, glucose, ketones, hemoglobin, bilirubin, urobilinogen, acetone, nitrite and leucocytes as well as testing of pH and specific gravity or to test for infection by different pathogens.